The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) attach at the distal (bottom) end of the femur (thighbone) and proximal (top) end of the tibia (shinbone). The ACL/PCL play an important role in stabilizing the patella (knee).
Often involving a loud “pop”, severe pain and swelling, ACL/PCL tears occur when sudden stops and changes in direction take place. This injury is common with falls and seen frequently in basketball, soccer, volleyball and football.
Weight-bearing activities such as standing and walking are likely to cause increased pain.
Instability is a major concern with individuals suffering from an ACL/PCL injury. Many light-weight bracing options are available to support the patella and prevent hyper-extension/ flexion during daily activity.
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Four ligaments and the patella tendon support the patella (knee). A stretch or tear in the tendon is termed a “strain,” whereas a stretch or tear in one of the four ligaments is termed a “sprain”.
Following a variety of knee surgeries, a post-operational brace may be recommended to promote proper recovery by reducing or immobilizing the patella’s (knee) range of motion.
Dislocation refers to a condition in which the patella (kneecap) is completely displaced from its normal alignment. Majority of patella dislocations occur towards the lateral (outside) side of the knee.
A condition that produces abnormal stresses on the under-surface of the kneecap (patella) due to tracking abnormalities. Pain may vary from mild to severe discomfort.
The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that provides cushion between the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). A meniscus injury may include symptoms of pain, swelling and stiffness, and difficulty bending/ straightening the patella (knee).
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the knee and involves bone-on-bone rubbing of the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone).
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are located on the medial (inner) and lateral (outer) side of the knee. The attach to the distal (bottom) end of the femur (thighbone) and proximal (top) end of the tibia (shinbone) to play an important role in joint strength and stability. A torn MCL/LCL may include symptoms of pain, swelling and stiffness, tenderness along the inside/outside of the knee and instability.
Synovial fluid lubricates the knee to reduce friction and help the leg swing smoothly. A buildup of fluid may result in a fluid-filled cyst originating on the popliteal bursa (back of the knee). Some individuals may experience no pain, while others may notice swelling and inability to fully flex the knee.
Inflammation below the knee at the point where the tendon from the kneecap (patella) attaches to the shinbone (tibia).
Articular cartilage covers the ends of bones inside a joint. Chondromalacia is most common in the knee and involves the softening and breakdown of this cartilage.
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